You should take this test if you experience…
✓ Brain fog
✓ Muscle aches and cramps
✓ Muscle or joint pain
✓ Skin rashes
Mycotoxins are some of the most prevalent toxins in the environment. Mycotoxins are
metabolites produced by fungi like mold, which can infest buildings, vehicles, and
foodstuffs. A majority of mycotoxin exposures are through food ingestion or airborne
exposure. Unfortunately, mycotoxins are resistant to heat and many processing procedures.
Fungi are able to grow on almost any surface, especially if the environment is warm and
wet. Inner wall materials of buildings, wall paper, fiber glass insulation, ceiling tiles, and
gypsum support are all good surfaces for fungi to colonize. These fungi then release
mycotoxins into the environment causing symptoms of many different chronic diseases.
Diseases and symptoms linked to mycotoxin exposure include fever, pneumonia-like
symptoms, heart disease, rheumatic disease, asthma, sinusitis, cancer, memory loss,
vision loss, chronic fatigue, skin rashes, depression, ADHD, anxiety, and liver damage.
With our new MycoTOX Profile, we can identify mycotoxin exposures and make
recommendations for detoxification treatments.
This test may be right for you if you experience:
fatigue, weakness, muscle aches, muscle cramps, headaches, sensitive to bright light,
unusual pains, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, sinus congestion, coughing, chest pain,
shortness of breath, joint pain, cognitive impairment, numbness, tingling, metallic taste in
mouth, excessive thirst, dizziness
The following are a list of the metabolites included in the profile:
AFLATOXIN M1 (AFM1)
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the main metabolite of aflatoxin B1, which is a mycotoxin
produced by the mold species Aspergillus. Aflatoxins are some of the most carcinogenic
substances in the environment. Aflatoxin susceptibility is dependent on multiple
different factors such as age, sex, and diet. Aflatoxin can be found in beans, corn, rice,
tree nuts, wheat, milk, eggs, and meat. In cases of lung aspergilloma, aflatoxin has been
found in human tissue specimens. Aflatoxin can cause liver damage, cancer, mental
impairment, abdominal pain, hemorrhaging, coma, and death. Aflatoxin has been shown
to inhibit leucocyte proliferation. Clinical signs of aflatoxicosis are non-pruritic macular
rash, headache, gastrointestinal dysfunction (often extreme), lower extremity edema,
anemia, and jaundice. The toxicity of Aflatoxin is increased in the presence of
Ochratoxin and Zearalenone.
OCHRATOXIN A (OTA)
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic mycotoxin. This
chemical is produced by molds in the Aspergillus and Penicillium families. Exposure is
primarily through inhalation in water-damaged buildings. Exposure to OTA can also
come from contaminated foods such as cereals, grape juices, dairy, spices, wine, dried
vine fruit, and coffee. OTA can lead to kidney disease and adverse neurological effects.
Studies have shown that OTA can cause significant oxidative damage to multiple brain
regions and the kidneys. Dopamine levels in the brain of mice have been shown to be
decreased after exposure to OTA.
Sterigmatocystin (STG) is a mycotoxin that is closely related to aflatoxin. STG is
produced from several species of mold such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Bipolaris. It
is considered to be carcinogenic, particularly in the cells of the GI tract and liver. STG
has been found in the dust from damp carpets. It is also a contaminant of many foods
including grains, corn, bread, cheese, spices, coffee beans, soybeans, pistachio nuts, and
animal feed. In cases of lung aspergilloma, STG has been found in human tissue
specimens. The toxicity of STG affects the liver, kidneys, and immune system. Tumors
have been found in the lungs of rodents that were exposed to STG. Oxidative stress
becomes measurably elevated during STG exposure, which causes a depletion of
antioxidants such as glutathione, particularly in the liver.
Roridin E is a macrocyclic trichothecene produced by the mold species Fusarium,
Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys (i.e. black mold). Trichothecenes are frequently found in buildings with water damage but can also be found in contaminated grain. This is a
very toxic compound, which inhibits protein biosynthesis by preventing peptidyl
transferase activity. Trichothecenes are considered extremely toxic and have been used as
biological warfare agents. Even low levels of exposure to macrocyclic trichothecenes
can cause severe neurological damage, immunosuppression, endocrine disruption,
cardiovascular problems, and gastrointestinal distress.
Verrucarin A (VRA) is a macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin produced from
Stachybotrys, Fusarium, and Myrothecium. Trichothecenes are frequently found in
buildings with water damage but can also be found in contaminated grain. VRA is a
small, amphipathic molecule that can move passively across cell membranes. The
primary tissues affected by VRA are intestinal and gastric mucosa, bone marrow, and
spleen. VRA causes damage to human cells by inhibiting protein and DNA synthesis,
disrupting mitochondrial functions, and by producing oxidative stress (due to generation
of free radicals). Exposure to VRA can cause immunological problems, vomiting, skin
dermatitis, and hemorrhagic lesions.
Enniatin B is a fungal metabolite categorized as cyclohexa depsipeptides toxin produced
by the fungus Fusarium. This strain of fungus is one of the most common cereal
contaminants. Grains in many different countries have recently been contaminated with
high levels of enniatin. The toxic effects of enniatin are caused by the inhibition of the
acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase, depolarization of mitochondria, and inhibition of
osteoclastic bone resorption. Enniatin has antibiotic properties and chronic exposure may
lead to weight loss, fatigue, and liver disease.
Zearalenone (ZEA) is a mycotoxin that is produced by the mold species Fusarium, and
has been shown to be hepatotoxic, hematotoxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic. ZEA is
commonly found in several foods in the US, Europe, Asia, and Africa including wheat,
barley, rice, and maize. ZEA has estrogenic activity and exposure to ZEA can lead to
reproductive changes. ZEA’s estrogenic activity is higher than that of other non-steroidal
isoflavones (compounds that have estrogen-like effects) such as soy and clover. ZEA
exposure can result in thymus atrophy and alter spleen lymphocyte production as well as
impaired lymphocyte immune response, which leads to patients being susceptible to
Gliotoxin (GTX) is produced by the mold genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus spreads in the
environment by releasing conidia which are capable of infiltrating the small alveolar airways of individuals. In order to evade the body’s defenses Aspergillus releases
Gliotoxin to inhibit the immune system. One of the targets of Gliotoxin is PtdIns (3,4,5)
P3. This results in the downregulation of phagocytic immune defense, which can lead to
the exacerbation of polymicrobial infections. Gliotoxin impairs the activation of T-cells
and induces apoptosis in monocytes and in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. These
impairments can lead to multiple neurological syndromes.
Mycophenolic Acid (MPA) is produced by the Penicillium fungus. MPA is an
immunosuppressant which inhibits the proliferation of B and T lymphocytes. MPA
exposure can increase the risk of opportunistic infections such as Clostridia and Candida.
MPA is associated with miscarriage and congenital malformations when the woman is
exposed in pregnancy.
Dihydrocitrinone is a metabolite of Citrinin (CTN), which is a mycotoxin that is
produced by the mold species Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. CTN exposure
can lead to nephropathy, because of its ability to increase permeability of mitochondrial
membranes in the kidneys. The three most common exposure routes are through
ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact. CTN has been shown to be carcinogenic in rat
studies. Multiple studies have linked CTN exposure to a suppression of the immune
Chaetoglobosin A (CHA) is produced by the mold Chaetomium globosum (CG). CG is
commonly found in homes that have experienced water damage. Up to 49% of water-
damaged buildings have been found to have CG. CHA is highly toxic, even at minimal
doses. CHA disrupts cellular division and movement. Most exposure to CG is through
the mycotoxins because the spores tend not to aerosolize. Exposure to CHA has been
linked to neuronal damage, peritonitis, and cutaneous lesions.
A kit will arrive to your door in 5-8 days, and results will be securely emailed
within 10-14 days after your sample is mailed
Collection instructions from the lab
Urine Sample: Collect 10 ML of your first morning urine before food and drink. Patient should
avoid apples, grapes (including raisins), pears, cranberries and their juices 48 hours prior
to specimen collection. Avoid arabinogalactan, echinacea, reishi mushrooms, and ribose
supplements for 48 hours before collection.
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